Cooling modality effectiveness and mortality associate with prehospital care of exertional heat stroke casualties
Cold-water immersion is the gold standard for field treatment of an exertional heat stroke (EHS) casualty. Practical limitations may preclude this method and ice sheets (bed linens soaked in ice water) have emerged as a viable alternative. Laboratory studies suggest that this is an inferior method; however, the magnitude of hyperthermia is limited and may underestimate the cooling rate in EHS casualties.
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